Sibutramine, formerly sold under the brand name Meridia among others, is an appetite suppressant which has been discontinued in many countries. Until 2010, it was widely marketed and prescribed as an adjunct in the treatment of obesity along with diet and exercise.
It has been associated with increased cardiovascular events and strokes and has been withdrawn from the market in several countries and regions including Australia, Canada, China, the European Union, Hong Kong, India, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. However, the drug remains available in some countries.
Sibutramine was originally developed in 1988 by Boots in Nottingham, U.K., and marketed by Knoll Pharmaceuticals after BASF/Knoll AG purchased the Boots Research Division in 1995, and was most recently manufactured and marketed by Abbott Laboratories before its withdrawal from most markets. It has been sold under a variety of brand names including Reductil, Meridia, Siredia, and Sibutrex. It is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance in the United States.
Sibutramine has been used to produce appetite suppression for the purpose of attaining weight loss in the treatment of patients with obesity.
Dimethocaine was originally synthesized by the Hoffmann-La Roche company in 1930. It was sold under the market name larocaine. During the 1930s dimethocaine gained popularity in the US as a local anesthetic. Just like cocaine and procaine, it was used during surgery, primarily in dentistry, ophthalmology and otolaryngology. However, in the 1940s, it was removed from the market because of its psychoactive effects and risk of addiction. Nowadays dimethocaine is abused for these psychoactive effects. It is sold as a cocaine surrogate to circumvent legislation issues.
Dimethocaine and structurally related local anesthetics like cocaine and procaine are suggested to inhibit the uptake of dopamine (DA) by blocking dopamine transporters (DAT). The dopamine transporter controls the dynamics of the neurotransmitter dopamine. This neurotransmitter controls many functions including movement, cognition and mood. Drug like cocaine and dimethocaine induce dopamine overflow by inhibiting dopamine transporters and thus creating a euphoric effect.